The Effects of Core Stability Training on Trunk Strength and Landing Mechanics in Female Athletes with Trunk Defects on a Stable and Unstable Level

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Physical Education, Islamic Azad University, Bandar Anzali Branch, Gilan, Bandar Anzali, Iraz

2 Department of Health and Sport Medicine, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.


Purpose‌‌‌‌‌: ‌‌‌
The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of core stability training on a stable and unstable surfaces on the endurance of the core region and the mechanics of landing female athletes with truncated defects using a landfall error score system‌‌‌‌‌.
Methods‌‌‌‌‌: ‌‌‌‌
Thirty female athletes with defective trunk participated in this study and divided into two experimental groups (core stability at stable and unstable level) from Rasht, Gilan, Province. ‌‌‌‌‌ Core zone endurance tests and landfall error score system were used to assess the jump-land biomechanics in pre-test and post-test‌‌‌‌‌. ‌‌‌‌‌ Experimental groups performed 6 weeks of training‌‌‌‌‌. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance and Bonferroni post hoc test at a level of 5% error using SPSS software version 22.
Results‌‌‌‌‌: ‌‌
The results showed a significant change in the scores of tests related to trunk endurance and landing mechanics after six weeks of training in both stable and unstable level training groups (p<0.05). After exercises, the differences between groups were statistically significant (p<0.05) in other tests except for the Planck test (p<0.05) and in the athletes of the training group, unstable level of better performance was observed.
Conclusion‌‌‌‌‌: ‌‌‌
Core stability exercises at a stable and unstable level in athletes with trunk defects can improve endurance and landing mechanics and, can be eliminated by moderating the risk factors of anterior cruciate ligament injury, this effect is achieved by performing unstable levels of training More‌‌‌‌‌. ‌‌‌‌‌


  1. Arendt EA, Agel J, Dick R‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ Anterior cruciate ligament injury patterns among collegiate men and women‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ Journal of athletic training‌‌‌‌‌ 1999; 34(2): 86-87.
  2. ‌‌Wikstrom E,  Tillman M,  Schenker S, Borsa P‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ Failed jump landing trials‌‌‌‌‌:‌‌‌‌‌ deficits in neuromuscular control‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports‌‌‌‌‌ 2008; 18(1): 55-61.
  3. Shaw MY, Gribble PA, Frye JL‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ Ankle bracing, fatigue, and time to stabilization in collegiate volleyball athletes‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ Journal of Athletic Training‌‌‌‌ 2008; 43(2): 164-171.
  4. ‌‌Tillman MD, Smith KR, Bauer JA, Cauraugh JH, et al.‌‌‌‌‌ Differences in three intercondylar notch geometry indices between males and females‌‌‌‌‌:‌‌‌‌‌ a cadaver study‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ The Knee‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌ 2002; 9(1): 41-46 .
  5. ‌‌Lees A‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ Methods of impact absorption when landing from a jump‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ Engineering in Medicine‌‌‌‌‌ 1981; 10(4): 207-211.
  6. Dufek JS,  Bates BT‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ The evaluation and prediction of impact forces during landings‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise‌‌‌‌‌ 1990; 22(3):370-377.
  7. Yu B, Herman D, Preston J, Lu W, et al.‌‌‌‌‌ Immediate effects of a knee brace with a constraint to knee extension on knee kinematics and ground reaction forces in a stop-jump task‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ The American journal of sports medicine‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ 2004; 32(5): 1136-1143.
  8. Hewett TE, Myer GD, Ford KR‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ Reducing knee and anterior cruciate ligament injuries among female athletes‌‌‌‌‌:‌‌‌‌‌ a systematic review of neuromuscular training interventions‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ The Journal of Knee Surgery‌‌‌‌‌ 2005; 18(1): 82-88.
  10. Willson JD, Davis IS‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ Utility of the frontal plane projection angle in females with patellofemoral pain‌.‌‌‌‌‌ Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy‌‌‌‌‌ 2008; 38(10): 606-615.
  11. Myer GD, Chu DA, Brent JL, Hewett TE‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ Trunk and hip control neuromuscular training for the prevention of knee joint injury‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ Clinics in Sports Medicine‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌ 2008; 27(3): 425-448.
  12. Myer GD, Brent JL, Ford KR,  Hewett TE‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ Real-time assessment and neuromuscular training feedback techniques to prevent ACL injury in female athletes‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ Strength and Conditioning Journal‌‌‌‌‌ 2011; 33(3): 21-22.
  13. Zazulak BT, Hewett TE, Reeves NP, Goldberg B, et al‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ Deficits in neuromuscular control of the trunk predict knee injury risk‌‌‌‌‌:‌‌‌‌‌ prospective biomechanical-epidemiologic study‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ The American Journal of Sports Medicine‌‌‌‌‌ 2007; 35(7): 1123-1130.
  14. Hewett TE, Ford KR, Hoogenboom BJ, Myer GD‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ Understanding and preventing acl injuries‌‌‌‌‌:‌‌‌‌‌ current biomechanical and epidemiologic considerations-update 2010.‌‌‌‌‌ North American Journal of Sports Physical Therapy‌‌‌‌‌:‌‌‌‌‌ NAJSPT‌‌‌‌‌ 2010; b5(4): 234-251.
  15. Akuthota V, Nadler SF‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ Core strengthening1‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation 2004; 85(3 Suppl 1): S86-92.
  16. Samson KM‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ The effects of a five-week core stabilization-training program on dynamic balance in tennis athletes‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ 1984.
  17. Willson JD, Dougherty CP, Ireland ML, Davis IM‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ Core stability and its relationship to lower extremity function and injury‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ JAAOS-Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons‌‌‌‌‌ 2005; 13(5): 316-325;
  18. Hewett T‌‌‌‌E‌‌‌‌‌, Shultz S‌‌‌‌‌J, Griffin L‌‌‌‌‌Y‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ Understanding and preventing noncontact ACL injuries‌‌‌‌‌:‌‌‌‌‌ Human Kinetics  2007; 75-103.
  19. Ehsani F,  Mohseni-Bandpei MA,  Shanbeh-Zadeh S‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ The Effect of Stabilization Exercises on Objective Outcome Measures in Patients with Chronic Non-Specific Low Back Pain‌‌‌‌‌:‌‌‌‌‌ A Systematic Review with Particular Emphasis On Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial‌‌‌‌‌ 2013; 14(2); 8-21. [Persian]
  20. Cosio-Lima LM, Reynolds KL, Winter C, Paolone V, Jones MT‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ Effects of physioball and conventional floor exercises on early phase adaptations in back and abdominal core stability and balance in women‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research‌‌‌‌‌ 2003; 17(4): 721-725.
  21. Padua DA, Marshall SW, Boling MC, Thigpen CA, et al.‌‌‌‌‌ The Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) is a valid and reliable clinical assessment tool of jump-landing biomechanics‌‌‌‌‌:‌‌‌‌‌ the JUMP-ACL study‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ The American Journal Of Sports Medicine‌‌‌‌‌ 2009; 37(10): 1996-2002.
  22. Nesser TW, Huxel KC, Tincher JL, Okada T‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ The relationship between core stability and performance in division I football players‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌ 2008; 22(6): 1750-1754.
  23. Olmsted LC, Carcia CR, Hertel J, Shultz SJ‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ Efficacy of the star excursion balance tests in detecting reach deficits in subjects with chronic ankle instability‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ Journal of athletic training‌‌‌‌‌ 2002; 37(4): 501-506.
  24. Araujo S, Cohen D, Hayes L‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌Six weeks of core stability training improves landing kinetics among female capoeira athletes‌‌‌‌‌:‌‌‌‌‌ a pilot study‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ Journal of human kinetics‌‌‌‌‌ 2015; 45(1): 27-37.
  25. Willardson JM‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ Developing the core‌‌‌‌‌:‌‌‌‌‌ Human Kinetics 2014.
  26. Griffin LY, Agel J, Albohm MJ, Arendt EA, et al. Noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries: risk factors and prevention strategies. JAAOS-Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons 2000; 8(3): 141-150.
  27. Griffin LY, Albohm MJ, Arendt EA, Bahr R, et al‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ Understanding and preventing noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries‌‌‌‌‌:‌‌‌‌‌ a review of the Hunt Valley II meeting, January 2005.‌‌‌‌‌ The American Journal of Sports Medicine‌‌‌‌‌ 2006; 34(9): 1512-1532.
  28. Powers CM‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ The influence of abnormal hip mechanics on knee injury‌‌‌‌‌:‌‌‌‌‌ a biomechanical perspective‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy‌‌‌‌‌ 2010; 40(2): 42-51.
  29. Alentorn-Geli E, Myer GD, Silvers HJ, Samitier G, et al‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ Prevention of non -contact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in soccer players‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ Part 1:‌‌‌‌‌ Mechanisms of injury and underlying risk factors‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌ 2009; 17(7): 705-729.
  30. Kulas AS, Schmitz RJ, Shultz SJ, Henning JM, Perrin DH‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ Sex-specific abdominal activation strategies during landing‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ Journal of Athletic Training‌‌‌‌‌ 2006; 41(4): 381-390.
  31. Silfies SP, Mehta R, Smith SS, Karduna AR‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ Differences in feedforward trunk muscle activity in subgroups of patients with mechanical low back pain‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation‌‌‌‌‌ 2009; 90(7): 1159-1169.
  32. Stevens VK, Vleeming A, Bouche KG, Mahieu NN, et al.‌‌‌‌‌ Electromyographic activity of trunk and hip muscles during stabilization exercises in four-point kneeling in healthy volunteers‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ European Spine Journal 2007; 16(5): 711-718.
  33. Tsao H, Hodges PW‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ Immediate changes in feedforward postural adjustments following voluntary motor training‌‌‌‌‌.‌‌‌‌‌ Experimental Brain Research‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌ 2007; 181(4): 537-546.
  34. Cugliari G, Boccia G. Core muscle activation in suspension training exercises. Journal of Human Kinetics 2017; 56(1): 61-71.